The defeat of the German-led alliance in the World War 1 and the subsequent economic losses of the British Empire provided Americans with a golden opportunity to challenge the British-dominated world order but instead, they opted for isolationism to avoid any kind of war. The disastrous consequences of the Second World War prompted reluctant Americans to participate in the global effort to defeat Nietzsche Germany. Since that time, Americans military and economic power out rightly dominated the world. However, the rise of China and Russia in the 21st century proved to be a challenge to the American hegemony on the global arena. Russia with its formidable military strength and China with its economic supremacy and ever asserting military muscle challenged some old conventions of American domination.
Russia with a powerful military and strong defence industrial complex took on the American-backed Ukrainians in the Eastern Europe and annexed part of the country. The influence of Russia in the Russian-speaking states of Ukraine has caused further resentment against the Country’s forces. Russia has also single-handedly challenged America in the Middle Eastern theatre including Syria. In Syria, Russia with the support of Iran turned the whole war around in the favour of the president Bashar Al Assad. Similarly, in Afghanistan Russian efforts have borne some fruits as evident from the recent regional peace conference to sort out the Afghan mess without American involvement silk road economic belt.
China is also a constant threat to the American hegemonic power. With a strong economy and the availability of cheap labour force, China has outclassed Americans in trade and commerce. America now owes trillions of dollars to China and this gap is increasing due to cheap Chinese goods. China is also cementing its military muscle with the recent induction of the first aircraft carrier and its exercise on the shores of the areas claimed by Philippine, which is an American ally. Chinese construction of artificial islands and coral reefs in the South and the East China Sea is also a threat to the American dominance in the Pacific Ocean. More than 5$ trillion worth of trade products passes only through the South China Sea along with its resources of natural gas and oil. China with its Silk Road initiative is also trying to bypass the American dominated Malacca strait which is under constant American Naval dominance. China is also looking to play a dominant role in the regional issues like Afghanistan and Syria. In Afghanistan, China has constantly tried to influence Taliban to come to the table for peace dialogue with the Afghan Government under the so-called Quadrilateral peace process comprising China, USA, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The assertive role of Russia and China plus the economic rise of India, Brazil and other regional powerhouses can prove to the be the end of American dominated World order but that primarily depends on the level of the economic and military strength these countries can achieve to disrupt the dominance of America. Can these countries overcome the American world order or not is yet to be seen. The signs clearly point towards that approach.